StoicismIn Stoic philosophy, the cosmos is a physical expression of Zeus' perfect thoughts and apocatastasis is the contraction when Zeus returns to self-contemplation. This will occur when the stars and planets return to their original positions, believed to be an alignment with Cancer, and the universe will be consumed by fire (ekpyrosis). Antapocatastasis is a counter-example or a counter-occurrence when the stars and planets align with Capricorn and the universe will be destroyed by flood (see also Noah's ark). When Zeus turns his thoughts outwards once more, the cosmos will be reborn or reconstituted under the guidance and sustenance of Logos (which Christianity considers the creative Word of God), an emanation of Zeus.
GnosticismIn Gnostic writings (considered hersy by Christian churches), apocatastasis occurs when a soul, which is Divine Light trapped in evil matter, frees itself by attaining special knowledge or Gnosis to rejoin the True God above all gods. Messengers of Light, of which Jesus Christ is an example, reveal the salvation that comes from finding the Kingdom of God within. The gnostic Gospel of Philip 180-350c contains the term itself and in other sayings expresses the idea that all comes from a common, eternal source:
"Of what a nature is the resurrection! And the image must rise again through the image. The bridegroom and the image must enter through the image into the truth, which is the apocatastasis."
ChristianityIn Christianity, apocatastasis is the doctrine of the ultimate reconciliation of good and evil forces. Apocatastasis maintains that all moral creatures – angels, humans and devils – will eventually come to a harmony in God's kingdom, the evil ones through repentance and rejection of evil.
The belief was first articulated by Clement of Alexandria (d. 215) and Origen of Alexandria (d. 232) and defended by Diodore of Tarsus . They adapted Platonic terminology and ideas to Christianity while explaining and differentiating the new faith from all the others. Proponents cited biblical passage in 1 Corinthians 15:28 ("When all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be subjected to him who put all things in subjection under him, that God may be all in all.") in support.